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The GHG balance is an estimate of the volume of greenhouse gas emissions emitted by an organisation over a given period. This study is an additional tool for improving energy performance and is used to take an inventory of various energy consumption items (e.g. HVAC, process activities, transport, etc.). The GHG balance is a Bilan Carbone that only concerns scopes 1 and 2.
The operational scope of the GHG balance corresponds to the categories and types of emissions related to operations performed in the organisational scope. The main international standards and methods define three categories of emissions:
- Direct GHG emissions (or SCOPE 1): Direct emissions emanating from stationary or mobile installations situated within the organisational scope, i.e.: emissions from sources owned or controlled by the organisation, such as combustion from stationary and mobile sources, industrial processes excluding combustion, emissions from ruminants, biogas from landfill centres, refrigerant leakages, nitrogenous fertilizers, biomass, etc.
- Indirect energy emissions (or SCOPE 2): Indirect emissions associated with the production of electricity, heat or steam imported for the activities of the organisation.
- Other indirect emissions (or SCOPE 3): Other emissions indirectly produced by the activities of the organisation which are not accounted for under Scope 2 but which are linked to the overall value chain, such as: the purchasing of raw materials, services or other products; employee travel; upstream and downstream transportation of goods; the management of waste generated by the activities of the organisation; the use and end-of-life of sold products and services; the amortisation of production assets and equipment, etc.